X14A External Website

Beamline X14A

  • General Information
    • Source Type
      Bending magnet


      General User Beamtime

      Energy Range Category
      Hard X-Ray (1-50 keV)

      Energy Range
      6-22 keV

      Beamline Type
      Facility Beamline

      Beamline Description
      Powder diffraction, in situ phase transformation and stability, crystallography, spectroscopy, phase identification and residual strain measurement, high temp x-ray diffraction. This beamline was the first to take light on the x-ray ring. It is equipped with a Si (111) horizontally focusing double crystal monochromator that provides useful flux from 3.6 to 20 keV. The angular acceptance is 10 milliradians and because of the focusing delivers the beam to a spot size 1.5 by 1.0 mm spot. The beamline is essentially unchanged from its original optical configuration however, due to its unique capabilities, the NSLS allocated some of its facilities initiative funding to the replacement of its first mirror, which was installed in 1998. X14A is optimized to be a very flexible diffraction station. It is equipped with a six circle Huber diffractometer with split chi-ring, crystal analyzers (Si, Ge, LiF, graphite crystals); CAMAC multi-channel analyzer; sample chambers for polycrystalline and gaseous materials; proportional counters, and an avalanche photodiode detector. In addition a four-lamp thermal image capillary furnace (up to 1700°C), a plate sample furnace (up to 900°C) with hemisherical Be dome and a Displex cryostat are available by special arrangement with the PRT. X14A recently participated in the Industrial Research Program at the Photon Science Directorate (PSD) and has been collaborating with the Iindustrial Research Program by providing more general user time for industrial research and especially energy related research projects, such as in situ XRD studies on battery materials. X14A beamline has been improved and has new capabilities added by the PSD Industrial Research Program. It includes a 640 channel Si strip detector which is a key instrument to run user program at X14A; a four-lamp thermal image capillary furnace (up to 1700°C) and its cooling and control system for in-situ high-T powder diffraction; a VAC controlled atmosphere system (glove box); a VMP3 cycler (for in situ battery studies) and a tube furnace (100°C to 1100°C) for sample processing which are available to the beamline users through the PSD Iindustrial Research Pprogram.

      Multi wavelength anomalous diffraction
      X-ray diffraction, powder
      X-ray diffraction, single crystal
      X-ray diffraction, time resolved
      X-ray diffraction, wide angle
      X-ray reflectivity

      BNL Battery Team
      DOE / EE&RE

      Research Types
      Materials science, in situ real-time high-temp x-ray diffraction, phase transformation, lattice expansion, crystallography, residual strain measurement. Focus on Vehicle Technology, energy transformation and storage materials problems.

  • Contact Information
    • Spokesperson The person from each beamline who acts as a contact point between the beamline management and NSLS administration. Contact for questions about the beamline scientific program, experimental capabilities, and beamline management.
      Jianming Bai, Brookhaven National Laboratory, jmbai@bnl.gov, 344-2583

      Local Contact The beamline staff member who is typically responsible for overseeing the daily operation and maintenance of the beamline. Contact for questions about beamline instrumentation, experimental details, and training.
      Jianming Bai, Brookhaven National Laboratory, jmbai@bnl.gov, 344-2583

      Beamtime Scheduler The beamline staff member responsible for coordination of beamline schedule every trimester. Contact for questions about beamtime scheduling.
      Jianming Bai, Brookhaven National Laboratory, jmbai@bnl.gov, 344-2583

      Beamline Phone

  • Instrumentation
    • Beamline Characteristics

      Energy RangeMono Crystal or GratingResolution (ΔE/E)FluxSpot Size (mm)Total Angular Acceptance (mrad)
      5.5 - 25 keV Si(111) 2 x 10-4 2 x 1012 (@ 8 keV, 200 mA, 2.8 Gev) 1.5H x 1.0V 10

      Source Type
      Bending magnet

      Optical System
      Mirror: Platinum coated flat single-crystal silicon mirror cylindrical in design, 700 mm long x 100 mm wide; variable vertical focusing or collimation. Radius adjustable from flat to 1 km; incident angles between 1 and 7 mradians; located 7.5 meters from the source; can be removed for high energy operation. Monochromator: Horizontally focusing double crystal monochromator; adjustable focal point from 13.3 - 30 meters from source; first crystal is water-cooled and flat; second crystal is conically bent; located 9.3 meters from the source.

      Experimental Apparatus
      Radiation hutch. Six circle Huber diffractometer with split chi-ring. Crystal analyzers (Ge, LiF, graphite crystals). Multiple furnaces for in situ diffraction, Oxford Microfast multi-channel analyzer. Microprobe pinholes down to 10 micron diameter. Si strip position sensitive detector, proportional counters and Pin Diode.

      Computer System Hardware & Software
      SPEC and CPLOT for data acquisition and data analysis on a PC with Linux operating system; CAMAC modules; Microfast MCA board; Jade XRD pattern processing software; ICDD PDF-4 full fine database.

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